Public Administration

Topic 1:

Public administration as a branch of science is the sphere of humanities knowledge, and also is connected with a lot of other sciences: history, sociology, psychology, political science, juridical science, economics, ethics, cultural studies.

Social governance is purposeful influence on society for its regulation, improvement and development.

Management is identified as deliberate influence on a complex system.

Object of research of PA as a science is activity of public authorities.

Subject matter of PA as a science consists of 3 groups of issues:

  • organization of public administration at various levels – central, regional and local;
  • techniques and methods of public administration (developing of decision-making theory, political forecasting, methods of PA);
  • problem of recruitment and training of officials.

Topic 2:

State power is an instrument providing existence of state and achievement of its objectives, through the power and methods implemented to ensure common and private needs, realize functions of regulation and resolve conflicts in society.

Public authority (government body) is an important element of organizational structure of public administration. It is an entity of state power structure, formally established by the state to perform its objectives and functions, and is connected with forming and implementation of government controlling actions.

Management unit is an independent element of management structure, for example, structural units or officials, which performs one or more management functions.

A certain management level should be considered as totality of management units that occupy a definite level in the management system. At the same management level, the division of competence between units is implemented.

Functions of PA are integrated controlling actions of Government, which are carried out according to the legislation by specially created executive authorities by means of specific methods in order to implement the tasks of PA.

Topic 3:

Government regulation of economy is a system of arrangements for realization of compensating and regulating Government activity in order to create appropriate conditions for market functioning and solve social and economic problems of national economy development.

Direct methods of GRE influence on the functioning of the market entities using administrative tools and economic instruments of direct impact (state orders, public contracts, grants, subsidy, subvention, Licensing, quotas, fixed prices for goods and tariffs for services, state standards and specifications).

Indirect methods of GRE are a set of indirect means of state influence on the activities of economic entities (system of legal and economic methods) through the creation of a particular economic environment that forces them to act in the right direction.

Fiscal policy consists of deliberate (обдуманный) changes in government spending and tax collections designed to achieve full employment, control inflation, and encourage economic growth.

Monetary policy consists of deliberate changes in the money supply to influence interest rates and thus the total level of spending in the economy.

Social policy is an activity of Government which is provided for Regulation of social conditions of society members life in order to increase their well-being, eliminate market failures and provide Social justice.

Topic 4:

Republic is one of the polity types in terms of which all supreme government bodies are either elected or formed by nationwide representative institutions.

Parliament is a supreme nationwide representative and legislative body in the government system of the state.

Executive power is irreplaceable attribute of the state-power mechanism, based on the principle of separation of powers. It`s expressed in the activities of special subjects with executive authorities, and is represented in the state-power mechanism by executive bodies.

Legislatures (legislative bodies) are elected assemblies in charge of the approval of draft legislation.

Topic 5:

Regional policy is extremely necessary for every Government in order to avoid significant imbalances in regional economic structure of the state and social problems.

Regional government is organizational, legal and economic measures, provided by state government in regional development according to current and strategic goals.

Region is consolidated by national legislation, occupy a level below the level of the state and have political Self-government.

Depressed areas are certain regions, where the indicators of socio-economic development fall behind the national standards or average figures.

Topic 6:

Verkhovna Rada is 450 People’s Deputies, who are elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot for the term of five years

Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.

President of Ukraine is the Head of State and acts in its name. The President is the guarantor of state sovereignty and territorial indivisibility of Ukraine, the observance of the Constitution of Ukraine and human and citizens’ rights and freedoms (Article 102).

Topic 7:

Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest authority in the system of bodies of executive power. The Cabinet of Ministers is responsible to the President and the Verkhovna Rada (Article 113).

Ministries are Central Bodies of Executive power that provide forming and implementing of state policy in one or more areas. Other CBEP perform certain functions on implementing of state policy.

Topic 8:

         Local state administration is a local body of executive power, which exercises executive power within its authority on the territory of certain administrative unit, as well as implements authority delegated by the respective council.

Topic 9:

Local self-government is the right and ability of a territorial community to resolve issues of local character independently (directly) or under the responsibility of authorities and officials of Local self-government.

Territorial community is an aggregation of inhabitants united by permanent residence within a village, settlement, city that is a separate administrative unit, or a voluntary association of inhabitants of several villages with a certain administrative center.

State budget deficit and ways of its compensation

National Technical University – Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute

State budget deficit and ways of its compensation

Made by: ISMAIL TOSUN

Checked by: ANASTASIA MITRAFANOVA

 

Introduction

This economic research is a detailed study of the budget deficit in the international area. it allows you to examine in detail how the countries balance their budget deficit for their own nations.

 

We may also agree that you can understand many definitions simply and how important the budget deficit is for the global economy.

 

You can learn how they are taking measures and how they solve this problem, especially when the budget deficit or budget surplus occurs in the economies of developed countries. This study is based on the articles of many researchers on how to balance the national budget.

 

It provides detailed research on how to balance these budgets by addressing the general budget deficits of many countries such as the United States, Kingdom of England, Greece and Brazil.

 

You will see that states are concentrating on definitions that are considered structural and cyclic to achieve a balance of budget deficit.

 

You will find that countries can manage their economic growth through fiscal policies, such as reducing their economic expenses and increasing taxes, by eliminating their expenditures and keeping them in balance.

PDF: Budget Deficit and ways of its compensation

 

Vadenin Repo Açısından Önemi Nedir?

Vadenin Repo Açısından Önemi Nedir?

 

Repo aslında bilindiği gibi yada daha çok tercih edildiği gibi yatırımcıların yeni yatırım alanlarına geçmek yada karar vermiş olduğu yatırım araçlarını satın almak için uygun zamanı beklemek adına tasarruflarını boşta kalmaması için küçükte olsa bir değer kazanması için tercih ettikleri bir yöntem olduğu için aslında vadenin repo açısından çokta önemli olduğunu söyleyemeyiz. Zaten görünürde de yatırımcılar Türkiye de her an karşınıza bir fırsat çıkabilir mantığı ile repolarını 1 günlük repoda toplamış olduklarından buda bize reponun daha çok vadesinden ziyade yatırımcının parasının yatırıma yönlendirilmeden önce kazanç sağlaması amacıyla kullanılan bir hizmet olduğunu göstermektedir.